Dec 14, 1978 - A dimensionally stable asbestos diaphragm is formed by.  Int. Cl.3 . .... (3) removing the coated cathode from the slurry and subjecting same ...
Feb 6, 1990 - permits de?nition of patterns with dimensions and alignment precision ..... define the area of the substrate where the thin ?lm of the device is to ...
Jun 30, 1976 - Level sensitive testing is performed on a generalized and modular logic with embedded array system that is utilized as an arithmetic/logical unit ...
Mar 6, 1997 - N. Norwood, Cranford, both of NJ.  Assignee: Clariant Finance (BVI) Limited,. Virgin Islands (Br).  Appl. No.: 08/811,806.  Filed: Mar.
Dec 8, 1978 - copolymer and a coating of a paint containing an NCO ... having the vinyl acetate content as de?ned above, ..... Du Pont method, 500 g-Â§â-.
Jun 4, 1997 - DuPont Nylon, âDibasic Esters (DBE)â. DuPont Chemicals, âDBE Solvent Applications DBEâ. Based Industrial Cleaning Solvents and paint ...
Items 1 - 7 - Coatings Applied Polymer Science Proc., 48, pp 1006 ... coatings based on IBM polymers and copolymers with ..... Vazo 64 (Dupont). 43 gms. (+8) ...
Jun 24, 1996 - De Guzman et al., âRole of Cyclic Voltammetry in Charac terizing Solids: Natural and Synthetic Manganese Oxide. Octahedral Molcular Sievesâ ...
For example, a male patient may be suffering ..... McCarthy Essay Competition, Western Section, Amer ... example, it has been found that a combination of Fenta.
Jul 2, 1990 - the second signal being Sum + j Delta; a log ampli?er in each of the .... 60 ME: IF signals, are supplied by way of the connec tions 64 and 66 at ...
United States Patent (19)
Cooper 54 FIRE PROTECTION FOR WOOD SHINGLE
75) Inventors: Gary D. Cooper, Arlington, Tex. 73) Assignee: Raincloud, Inc., Fort Worth, Tex. Inventor:
mounted on risers extending through the roof surface and supplied by PVC pipe suspended beneath the roof surface. Alternatively, porous hose may be mounted along the ridges. Water is supplied through an electri cally motorized valve and electric motor driven booster pumps. The control circuit includes one or more flame sensor circuits each consisting of an electric current conductor disposed in selectively spaced runs and con nected to the coil of a signal relay. Smoke detector sensor circuits include relay switches and operating coils, which coils are activated in response to a selected smoke level. The relay switches are connected by the control circuit to energize the motorized valve and the pump motor. The water flow is initiated either when
Arlington, Tex. 76016
Related U.S. Application Data Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 172,664, Jul. 28, 1980,
which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 132,867,
Mar. 24, 1980, abandoned. 51) Int. C.’.............................................. G08B 25/00
The water dispensing system includes sprinkler heads
Gary D. Cooper, 3720 Danbury Dr.,
21 Appl. No.: 334,076 22 Filed: Dec. 23, 1981 63
flame overtakes a run of a flame sensor conductor or when a smoke detector detects the selected smoke level.
References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 3,583,490 6/1971 McFadden ............................ 169/16
I9 - - - ---
24 Claims, 9 Drawings Figures
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- - -
27 MY 4.
| 17N, Nels -
I7- 26 i? 2,
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7 . ..-
26 43 26 r . .' 722 y223 - 23
Jun. 5, 1984
Primary Examiner-Harold I. Pitts Attorney, Agent or Firm-Peter J. Murphy
. . .
U.S. Patent Jun. 5, 1984
Sheet 1 of 5
U.S. Patent Jun. 5, 1984
Sheet 2 of 5
Jun. 5 , 1984
Sheet 4 of 5
U.S. Patent Jun. 5, 1984
Sheet 5 of 5
FIRE PROTECTION FOR WOOD SHINGLE ROOF
This application is a continuation-in-part of applica tion Ser. No. 172,664, filed July 28, 1980; which applica tion is, in turn, a continuation-in-part of application Ser.
systems is that if a fire destroys the wiring before detec
tion is accomplished, the system is rendered inopera
No. 132,867, filed Mar. 24, 1980 now abandoned. BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
large number of thermostats to detect a small fire before it has spread significantly presents problems of substan tial expense with respect to both the cost of the thermo stats themselves and to the costs for wiring up a substan tial number of thermostats. Another difficulty with such
This invention relates in general to a system and method for minimizing damage to a building due to a fire originating in the roof of the building, the system having other advantages, and more particularly to a system and method for arresting a fire which may have 15 started on the exterior roof surface, such as by a flying ember for example, before that fire produces significant damage. While the invention has application in roofs fabri cated from any flammable material, the invention is 20 particularly useful in connection with wood shingle roofs.
tive. Another difficulty with such system, particularly where relatively few thermostats are used, is that the
fire may not be detected until it is well established and the established fire may rupture the water supply sys tem before it has been effective to wet the roof surface.
A major problem in connection with roof protection systems then is to provide a sensing device or system which is effective to detect a small fire at any location on the roof surface and before it has spread signifi cantly, and to activate the water dispensing system to extinguish the fire before it has advanced to the extent that it may render inoperative either the detection sys tem or the water dispensing system. The above men tioned prior art patents do not suggest a practical solu tion to that problem. A further problem with the provision of a practical
Wood shingle roofs are hazardous in the event of a fire, because they are extremely flammable when dry,
detection system for detecting fires on the exterior roof
roof, the damage can be very great unless some means is provided to retard the spread of the fire along the roof. Wood shingle roofs represent a particular hazard where
surface. This means that the detection devices or sys tems must have the capability of withstanding various deteriorating conditions and incidents, and still maintain reliability. Foremost among these conditions are the
causing a rapid spread of a fire throughout a structure. 25 surface is that the detection devices or systems should For structures having a large expanse of wood shingle most advantageously be placed on that exterior roof
a number of neighboring homes have such roofs, partic ularly when such homes are erected in close proximity. In that situation, a fire in one structure may quickly
spread to neighboring structures, through flying sparks or embers, particularly under high wind conditions. In these situations, a major fire fighting effort may be di rected to saving adjacent structures, rather than mini mizing damage at a primary fire which is already well
elements: sun, wind, rain, sleet, ice and snow. A condi tion with wood shingle roofs that results from the ele
It has been observed that a fire starting at the exposed surface of a wood shingle roof, by an ember for exam ple, will spread in a predetermined manner; and this invention is concerned with an automatic system for detecting such a fire at a very early stage and in extin guishing that fire before it can spread to any significant degree. 45 There are known in the prior art systems for dispens ing water onto the exterior roof of a building, residence or otherwise, for the purpose of wetting down the roof to perhaps prevent a roof fire from being ignited by flying embers or sparks in the event of a nearby brush 50 fire, forest fire or structure fire, for example. Such sys tems are disclosed in Thompson U.S. Pat. No. 1,620,142, Banzato U.S. Pat. No. 3,179,181, and McFad
den U.S. Pat. No. 3,583,490. The latter two of these
patents disclose systems for supplying the water from a source such as a swimming pool to dispensing means on the roof, including electric motor driven pumps which
may be put into operation automatically in response to a detection system. The detection devices for these systems are thermostats which are responsive to the heat of flame and it is thought that these may be placed on or about the structure in any desired manner. A difficulty with thermostats, particularly if there are a relatively few thermostats spaced over a relatively large roof area, is that they will likely not be responsive to a fire until it has been well established, except in the situa tion of course where the fire may start at the precise location of one thermostat. The placing of a sufficiently
ments is that the shingles buckle and crack with time. deposited on roofs such as leaves, nuts falling from trees, and other blowing plant material and debris which drops from trees or other vegetation. Further the
The system must be resistant to materials which may be
detection devices or systems must be resistant to the activities of animals which move about roofs and also to humans who have occasion to be on roofs for various service and maintenance purposes. -
One object of this invention is to provide a system and method for preventing or retarding the spread of fires which originate at the exposed surface of a roof. A further object of this invention is to provide a system and method for extinguishing very quickly a wood roof fire which has been started by an ember or a spark from a neighboring fire. Still another object of this invention is to provide a system and method for detecting a fire in a building roof, and for effecting automatically an extinguishin water flow. A still further object of this invention is to provide a system and method for effectively detecting a small roof surface fire at any location on a wood shingle roof. Another object of this invention is to provide a sys tem for detecting very quickly a small fire in a wood shingle roof and for automatically initiating extinguish ing water flow before the fire can spread significantly. A further object of this invention is to provide a system for reducing the cost of cooling a residence or . like building structure...s.. .
. .. .
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
system for minimizing the settling of a building founda 65 tion or floor slab.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a system for preventing the start of a roof fire by airborne sparks or embers.
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along Still another object of this invention is to provide an effective fire protection system for wood roof, which the line 9-9 of FIG. 8. system can be installed at reasonable cost in either an DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED existing or a new structure. EMBODIMENTS These objects are accomplished in a fire protection 5 FIG. 1 of the drawing is a plan view of a hipped roof system which includes water dispensing means such as 10 of a residence, the roof having sections 14 defined by sprinkler heads mounted on the roof structure and the several ridges 11, hips 12 and valleys 13. The ex above the exposed roof surface in a manner to effec tively wet the entire roof surface either by direct spray O posed roof surface consists of wood shingles which are nailed to the roof lathing nailed in turn to rafters 16. In or runoff. Feed pipe means feed water from a supply the usual form of wood shingle roof, the shingles 15 are source, such as the water utility, to the dispensing means. A motorized gate valve connects the feed pipe
nailed in horizontal rows or courses, with the lower
edges or lips of each course being aligned or linear. A plurality of sprinkler heads 17 are disposed princi 5 pally along the ridges and hips to provide 100% wetting coverage of the exposed roof surface, either by direct spray or by water flow or runoff. The heads are mounted on generally vertical risers 18 which extend upward through the roof surface, and are disposed se lected distances above the surfaces. The ridge heads are the valve in response to the triggering of the signal 20 mounted on vertical risers, with the heads being at least device. 4 inches above the ridge. The hip heads are mounted on More particularly several of such flame sensor cir risers perpendicular to the roof surface with the heads cuits may be provided each having an associated signal being a minimum of 3 inches above the surface. The device, with all of the signal devices being connected by 25 sprinkler heads are preferably fabricated from brass, the control circuit to the motorized valve. Also more and are mounted on riser pipes preferably of copper to particularly a smoke sensor circuit includes a smoke resist damage from the roof surface fire. Suitable boots sensitive device, disposed beneath the roof surface, and are provided around the risers to prevent water ingress a second signal device, the signal device being triggered through the roof surface. in response to detection of a selected smoke level. This The feed pipe for supplying water to the several second signal device is also connected by the control dispenser heads 17 traverses the attic of the structure circuit to the motorized valve. Again several of said and is suspended from the rafters adjacent to the under smoke sensor circuits may be provided. side of the roof surface by suitable hangers. The water Also more particularly the system may include an feed piping includes a riser pipe 20, located adjacent a electric motor driven booster pump; and the control 35 building wall 19 in the residence garage for example. In circuit may connect the several signal devices to the the illustrated system, this riser pipe may be 2 inch booster pump starting circuit to start the booster pump pipe, for example; and the various sections of the feed simultaneously with the opening of the motorized pipe illustrated may be sized as indicated by the follow valve. ing sections. The pipe sections 21 may be 2 inch pipe; Still more particularly, the conductors of the flame the pipe sections 22 may be 2 inch pipe; the pipe 01006 sensor circuits are disposed in runs spaced at selected sections 23 may be 1 pipe; the pipe sections 24 may be distances from each other, to be overrun quickly by a 1 inch pipe; the pipe sections 25 may be 1 inch pipe; the small roof fire. pipe sections 26 may be inch pipe; and the pipe sec The novel features and the advantages of the inven tions 27 may be inch pipe. With sizing of this type, the tion, as well as additional objects thereof, will be under pressure available at each dispenser will be approxi stood more fully from the following description when mately equal. The riser pipes 18 will also be inch pipe read in connection with the accompanying drawings. for joining to inch sprinkler heads. FIGS. 2 and 3 of the drawing illustrate the water DRAWINGS supply control and booster system including an inlet FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of a hipped roof 50 pipe 30 extending from the meter, a motorized valve 31 of a residence, including water lines disposed in the in a ground box 32 adjacent to the residence structure, an entry pipe 33 passing through an opening in the attic; FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic fragmentary sectional view, building wall 19, and one or more centrifugal booster taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, showing the inlet pumps 34 driven by associated electric motors 35. The plumbing and associated components; 55 motorized valve 31 may be a type which is normally FIG. 3 is a schematic and diagrammatic illustration of closed by a spring motor and which is opened by an
to the supply source. A flame sensor circuit includes an electric current conductor disposed on the exposed roof surface and a signal device connected in an electrically energized circuit, with the signal device being triggered in response to a predetermined condition of the flame sensor circuit. A control circuit connects the signal device to the motorized valve, to effect the opening of
electrically energized motor. FIG. 3 illustrates a pre ferred arrangement of a two-pump booster system in cluding pumps 34a and 34b driven by a respective cou FIG. 5 is a schematic control circuit for the invention 60 pled electric motors 35a and 35b. These pumps are including sensor loops; connected with suitable gate valves so that they may be FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of a wood operated either in series or individually. In the illus shingle roof, showing the shingle courses and the wire trated arrangement with water supplied from the pipe 33, and with gate valves 36 all open, the pumps are runs of a sensor loop; FIG. 7 is an alternative schematic control circuit for 65 connected in series to boost the water pressure supplied to the riser pipe 20. The gate valves 37 then are closed. the invention, including sensor cables; FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic plan view of a hipped roof, Should one of the pumps fail during the operation, the including a porous hose water dispenser; and water will nevertheless continue to flow through the
a two-pump booster set up; FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic fragmentary sectional view showing sprinkler heads and associated risers;
5 inoperative pump being boosted by the remaining oper
ability to maintain itself in place once installed to obvi ative pump. To minimize pressure loss, the inoperative ate the need for frequent maintenance or repair. pump may be bypassed by selected manipulation of the The above mentioned 20 gauge tin-lead wire with a pressure sensitive adhesive coating is well suited for the gate valves 36 and 37. The control system includes the electrically operated 5 intended purpose. The wire itself has most of the de motorized valve 31 and the electric drive motors 35 of sired characteristics. The adhesive coating may be for the pumps 34. In the schematic control circuit to be mulated to have the desired insulating properties; and a described, a single electric motor starter 35 is indicated. suitably formulated adhesive coating will have the de The automatic control circuit to be described, in con sired adhesion characteristics. Wire having a pressure nection with the schematic circuit of FIG. 5, responds 10 sensitive adhesive coating may be applied to the roof to several types of sensors, in the event of a fire, to even in fairly high wind since the wire may be dis automatically open the motorized valve 31 and to start pensed from spools immediately onto the roof surface the one or two booster pumps 34 to effect very quickly and will adhere immediately. Apart from the wind con the wetting of the entire roof surface and extinguish any 15 ditions, this technique of laying the wire is rapid and economical. small fire or fires which have been started by embers correspondingly The second type of sensor might be referred to gener from a neighboring fire for example. One type of sensor is a flame sensor consisting of a loop of a continuous ally as a smoke sensor or detector. More particularly may include an element which is wire conductor connected in series with a power source such smoketosensor a selected level or density of smoke, con and with a signal device. The wire loop is formed into 20 responsive a signal device such as the coil of a relay runs possibly 6 inches or 12 inches from each other for nected with In the system described these smoke sensors example, so that a fire started on the roof surface will switch. might be considered as backup sensors. It is known that not have to spread very far before it overruns one of the when fire is started at the exposed surface of a wood runs of the wire loop and melts the wire to break the shinglea roof, the fire quickly penetrates the wood shin circuit. One form of conductor for the loop may be 28 25 gles and burns the underside of the roof surface or 30 gauge insulated copper wire which will melt in spreading much on more than on the exposed sur the heat of fire. FIG. 6 illustrates, by way of example, face due to air currentsrapidly through the opening at the fire. adjacent runs of wire L1 which are mounted adjacent to This, of course, creates smoke within attic of the the lips of alternate wood shingle courses 15. Since this structure; and it is possible that a suitablythe located smoke wire is fragile it would be protected to some extent by 30 sensor would respond to the smoke level before the being disposed against the lips or edges of the shingle at the exposed surface of the roof has progressed tofirea courses. This flame sensor responds to the heat of flame point where it would overrun one of the runs of a flame or embers directly contacting the conductor. sensor. This would be particularly more likely if the A preferred form of conductor for the above de runs of the wire loops were spaced further apart than 12 scribed conductor loop is a form of solder wire such as 35 inches for example. Smoke sensors, then, would be a 20 gauge wire having a 60-40 tin-lead composition. placed at suitable locations in the attic as illustrated in For ease of securing the wire to a roof surface, the wire FG, 1. is preferably provided with a pressure sensitive adhe Certain known smoke detectors are responsive to a sive coating having good adhesion characteristics and selected heat level, in addition to a selected smoke level. which will retain its adhesive characteristics over along 40 These represent then a third type of sensor, namely a period of time under adverse conditions, heat sensor. These heat sensors may respond to heat The wire which is used for the described loop sensor buildup due to a neighboring fire, to active the system must have a number of qualities or characteristics in to prevent the start of a new fire. order for it to function reliably in the described system, In the schematic circuit of FIG. 5, two flame sensor and also for it to function for a significant period of 45 circuits are shown identified by the loops L1 and L2 time. The wire must be able to withstand the elements which are connected in series respectively with the such as sun, rain, wind, sleet and snow. The wire must coils of relays R1 and R2, which relays are the signal be insulated since short circuits across runs would ren devices. Three smoke sensors D1, D2, and D3 are der ineffective portions of the loop beyond the short shown in this schematic circuit and these are also indi circuit. The wire must be tough, flexible and resilient 50 cated in FIG.1. These smoke sensors include respective and have adequate tensile strength. The wire must be coils and switches, to be described, which are the signal able to withstand a number of forces, in addition to the devices of the respective smoke sensor circuits. elements. It must be resistant to the activities of animals Referring now to the schematic circuit of FIG. 5, that occasionally wander across building roofs. It must most of the control circuit would be contained within a be able to withstand the weathering of wood shingles 55 control panel 40 mounted at a suitable location, such as which in time results in curling, splitting and breaking in the garage near the booster pumps. The circuit in of shingles. It must also be able to withstand the activi cludes a load center 41 which is the entry from the ties of humans who have occasion to walk on roofs for utility supply which is a three-wire 120/240 volt, single various purposes such as inspection, repair, and mainte phase supply. The load center would include suitable nance of other structures and equipment located on the 60 circuit breakers. roof. The following description of the control circuit is From an economic standpoint, the wire for this loop concerned principally with automatic operation; how sensor must have other characteristics. Considering that ever reference will be made also to manual operation a 3000 square foot single story residence may require and operation through a clock timer. The control cir about 5000 feet of conductor loop, the wire employed 65 cuit includes several sub-circuits which will be referred must first be sufficiently economical of manufacture to to as the supply circuit, the pump circuit, the valve encourage use of the system. Additionally the wire circuit, the flame sensor circuit, the auto circuit, and the should have a capability of simple installation, and the power circuit,
8 detectors D1, D2 and D3 to the valve circuit and to the starter 44 of the motor circuit, so that when any one of these switches is closed, the motorized valve 31 will be
The pump circuit includes conductors 43a and 43b which supply 240 volt power to the pump motor 35
through the motor starter 44. The valve circuit consists of the secondary of a trans former 46, having a 120 Volt primary and a 24 volt secondary for providing power through conductors 47a
opened and the pump motor or motors 35 will be started. Conductor 58a of the power circuit is con nected to the motor starter 44 and conductor 58b is connected to the valve circuit. Conductor 58c of this power circuit is connected to the other side of the
and 47b to the motorized valve 31. The flame sensor circuits include a transformer 49
having a 120 volt primary and a 24 volt secondary for providing 24 volt power to the loops L1 and L2. The circuit for the loop L1 consists of conductors 50a, 50b,
to the switches D1-2, D2-2 and D3-2 of the respective
50c and 50d connected to the coil of relay R1, with the
ground side of the coil being connected to the trans former by conductors 50e and 50f. The circuit for the
The power circuit also provides the function of ener
loop L2 consists of the conductors 50a, 50g, 50h and 50i 15 connecting the loop to the coil of relay R2 with the ground side of the coil being connected to the trans former by conductors 50i and 50f. The relays R1 and R2 are of a type that the respective relay switches are closed when the respective coils are not energized, and 20 are open when the coils are energized. The supply circuit provides 120 volt power to certain of the sub-circuits; and for convenience the conductors of the supply circuit will be identified by the power side conductors 52 and the ground side conductors 53. The 25 conductor 52a connected to the load center connects to
the transformer 49 through conductor 52b, and con nects through conductors 52c, 52d and 52e to the selec tor switch 54 to be described. Conductor 52f connects this power side to the clock timer 55. Through conduc tors 52g, 52h and 52i, this power side is connected to the coils D1-1, D2-1, and D3-1 of the respective smoke detectors D1, D2 and D3. Referring to the ground side,
conductor 53a is connected to the load center and con
nects to the transformer 49 through conductor 53b. Through conductors 53c and 53d this circuit is con nected to the motor starter 44. Through conductors 53e, 53f and 53g this circuit is connected to the coils of the respective smoke detectors D1, D2 and D3. Through
conductor 53h this circuit is connected to the trans former 46 of the valve circuit.
Referring now to the smoke detectors, it will be seen that the coils of all the detectors are energized through this supply circuit. These coils along with respective switches D1-2, D2-2 and D3-2 function as relays in that when these detectors respond to the selected smoke density level the coils will act to close the respective switch to perform the function to be described. Referring now to the selector switch 54, this switch has three positions: auto, off, manual. The switch is shown in the auto position for automatic operation; and the functions of the other switch positions will be de scribed subsequently. With the selector switch in the auto position, the power side of the supply circuit is connected to several components through the auto circuit conductors 56. Through conductors 56a and 56b one side of the switch of relay R1 is connected to the power side. Through
gizing the valve circuit and the motor starter circuit independently of the loop sensor circuits and the smoke detector sensor circuits. When the selector switch 54 is moved to the manual position, the power circuit is con nected directly to the power side of the supply circuit through the conductors 58h and 58i. The selector switch then is a manual switch for turning the roof water sprinklers on at will. This is desirable in the event a roof fire is started and the automatic system fails. Also, in the event of a fire in a neighboring residence, it would be desirable to wet the roof immediately to pre vent an ember from starting a fire in the first place. An additional purpose for the manual control may be to help reduce the air conditioner cooling load in the heat of the day. When a wood shingle roof is wetted, the shingles quickly absorb the moisture and will retain this for a length of time. If the water is turned on then for just a sufficient time to wet the shingles, then through evaporative cooling the roof surface will be cooled and stay cool for some period thereby reducing the buildup of heat through the roof surface into the attic of the residence. Additionally, the water running off the roof will cool the walls of the building particularly if the water is permitted to run down the walls; but water dripping from the roof eaves will also provide a cooling effect on the building walls. When the selector switch 54 is moved to the off posi tion, the system is inoperative since there is no power available at the switches of the several relays and smoke
detectors to effect the energization of the valve circuit
and the pump motor.
for dispensing water onto the roof on a regular basis, such as for reducing the air conditioning load. The clock timer is connected directly to the power circuit through conductors 58h and 58i and when the clock timer switch is closed the valve circuit and pump motor circuit are energized. By way of example, the clock timer might be set to activate the system for one-half
The use of the clock timer 55 is an alternative means
hour each afternoon such as between 2:30 P.M. and 3:00
The operation of the system represented by FIG. 5 is
believed clear from the foregoing description, and will be only briefly summarized here. When the control circuit is energized at the load center 41 the pump
conductors 56a and 56c, one side of the switch of relay
R2 is connected to the power side. Through conductors 56a, 56d, 56e and 56f one side of the switches. D1-2 D2-2 and D3-2 of the respective smoke detectors are connected to the power side. These switches of the relays R1 and R2 and smoke detectors D1, D2 and D3 are normally open when the respective coils are ener gized as has been described. The power circuit connects the other sides of the switches of the relays R1 and R2 and of the smoke
switch of relay R1 and conductor 58d is connected to the other side of the switch of relay R2. Through con ductors 58e, 58f, and 58g the power circuit is connected
motor circuit is armed in the sense that power is avail able at the motor starter 44 to start the motor or motors when the motor starter is energized. The flame sensor circuits L1 and L2 are energized, and the coils of the respective relays R1 and R2 are energized to open and hold open the respective switches of these relays. Simi larly, the coils D1-1, D2-1 and D3-1 of the respective
smoke detectors are energized to open and hold open Referring now to the schematic circuit of FIG. 7 in the respective smoke detector switches. The ground detail, this circuit is identical to that previously de side of the valve circuit is connected to the load center. scribed and illustrated in FIG. 5, except that the previ The power circuit connects one side of the respective ously described loop sensors and associated circuits are switches of the signal devices, that is the relays R1 and 5. now replaced by the cable sensors and associated cir R2 and the smoke detectors D1, D2 and D3 to the valve cuits. The cable sensor circuits include the transformer 49 having a 120 volt primary and a 24 volt secondary, circuit and the motor starter 44. for providing 24 volt power to the cable sensor circuits When the selector switch 54 is moved to the auto position, the auto circuit connects the other sides of C1 and C2. The cable sensor C1 consists of a cable 140a having side-by-side conductors 150b and 150c. The these respective switches of the signal devices to the 10 circuit for the cable sensor C1 consists of the conductor supply circuit. These five signal devices are then armed in the sense that, should the switch of any one of the
150a connecting the transformer 49 to the cable con
ductor 150b, Conductor 150d connects the cable con
signal devices close, the valve circuit and the motor starter will be energized to effect the dispensing of
ductors 150c to one side of the coil of relay R11; and the other side of this coil is connected to the transformer by conductors 150e and 150f. When the transformer 49 is energized, this circuit is open since the distal ends of the
water onto the roof surface. For the signal devices R1
and R2, the respective switches will be closed should either of the sensor circuits be opened through the melt ing of the wire of the loops L1 or L2 to deemergize the respective coils. For the smoke detectors, the respective switches will be closed should any one of these detec
cable conductors 150b and 150c are not connected. 20
Similarly, the cable sensor C2 consists of the cable 140b having side-by-side conductors 150g and 150h. The cable conductor 150g is connected to the transformer by
tors detect the preselected smoke level which would the conductor 150a. The cable conductor 150h is con then effect the deemergization of the respective coil and nected to one side of the coil of relay R12 by the con the closing of the respective switch. 150i. The other side of this coil is connected to For manual or timed operation, through the selector 25. ductor the transformer by the conductors 150i and 150f. This switch 54 in the manual position or through the clock circuit is also open, when the transformer is energized, timer 55, the power circuit provides power directly to since the distalends of the conductors 150g and 150h are the valve circuit and the motor starter, bypassing the not connected.
signal devices R1, R2, D1, D2 and D3.
30 EMBODIMENT OF FIG. 7 FIG. 7 is a schematic circuit which illustrates an
alternative form of system according to the invention; this alternative form including a different type of con
OPERATION OF FIG. 7 SYSTEM The operation of this alternative system is generally similar to that of the system illustrated in FIG. 5. As with the previous system, when the system is turned on
for automatic operation, the system is armed in the
ductor loop flame sensor to be laid along the courses of 35 sense that, should any relay switch close for any of the wood shingles, and associated flame sensor circuits. relays R11, R12 or smoke sensors D1, D2 or D3, the
These flame sensors will be referred to as cable sensors
C1 and C2, and will perform the functions of the above described loop sensors L1 and L2 but in a different al
The cable sensors C1 and C2 each consist of a length connected at the control panel 40. The cable, then, may be laid on the roof surface in any desired arrangement, preferably in runs generally parallel to each other and being spaced from each other from 6 to 12 inches for example in a manner similar to the wires of the loop sensors. At the distal end of each cable sensor, the cable wires are not connected so that the cable represents an open circuit sensor rather than closed loop sensors as
of two-wire cable, with only one end of the cable being
are the sensors L1 and L2. The two wires of a cable sensor are insulated from
system will effect the dispensing of water from the sprinkler heads. The cable sensor circuits are normally open circuits; and the switches of the relays R11 and R12 are main tained open for the open circuit condition of these cable sensor circuits. Should either circuit be closed, resulting from the melting or other breakdown of the cable insu lation by flame generating heat, the conductor pairs will be joined to close the respective cable, sensor circuit thereby energizing the relay coil to close the respective
contact switch. ALTERNATIVE WATER DISPENSING APPARATUS 50
A water dispensing system including sprinkler heads,
such as the sprinkler head 17 described with respect to each other and are disposed in side-by-side or perhaps FIG. 1, presents some disadvantages. One disadvantage twisted relation to form a cable where the wires are is that in a high wind there may be certain areas of the nearly contiguous, separated only by an insulating 55 roof surface which are not reached and wetted by the layer. The functional criteria of these cable sensors is water spray from the sprinkler heads. This of course that the cable will respond to the heat of flame, to effect reduces the overall reliability of the overall system. the melting or breakdown of the separating insulation Another disadvantage is water loss. While water loss and the consequent joining of the cable wire to close the would not be of concern in the event of the primary use circuit in which the cables are connected. The one end 60 of the system to prevent fire damage, this may be of of a cable sensor is connected in series with the coil of concern for other uses of the system such as to improve a relay signal device. the cooling of the structure. FIGS. 8 and 9 of the drawing illustrate another form With this type of flame sensor the relays R11 and R12 of the flame sensor circuits are of a different type, of water dispensing apparatus which is very effective namely that the respective switches of the relays will be 65 for accomplishing the purposes of this invention. This normally open when the respective coils are not ener alternative form of apparatus includes the use of a flexi gized, and that these respective relay switches will close ble porous hose disposed adjacent to, and on both sides of, the ridges and hips of a roof structure. FIG. 8 is a when the coils are energized.
plan view of a hipped roof 50 of a residence having roof sections defined by the several ridges 51, hips 52 and valleys 53. The roof may have the same conventional structure described with respect to FIG.1. As seen in the drawings, in order to have full wetting coverage of 5 the roof sections, lengths of the porous hose 56 are placed on both sides of each ridge 51 and each hip 52 close to the apexes of those ridges and hips. The porous hose may be secured to the roof in any desired manner, such as by straps of plastic or other suitable material 10 nailed to the roof. The water supply system for the porous hose may include a system of feed pipes within the attic structure of the building, including risers ex tending through the roof and having nipples to which the hose is suitably secured. Alternatively, the supply 15 pipe system could be mounted under the eaves at the exterior of the building structure. A suitable form of flexible porous hose for this pur pose is a product marketed under the name Leaky Pipe by Trek Services, Inc. of Dallas, Tex. Forms of this 20
product are the subject of U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,003,408 issued Jan. 18, 1977 and 4,168,799 issued Sept. 25, 1979. A suitable form of flexible porous hose is composed primarily of granulated rubber particles and a polyeth ylene binder mix fabricated to provide a porous side 25 wall having labyrinthine passageways. Characteristics of this flexible porous hose which make it particularly suitable in the fire protection system of the invention include the fact that up to 2000 feet of the hose may be supplied with the usual water pressure available at the 30 residence. A typical residence might require about 400 feet of the hose and this length of hose may be supplied very adequately with a water pressure of only two psi. Another desirable characteristic of this flexible hose is
that the flow of water will be uniform throughout its length. The applicant has discovered that a roof protec tion system of the type described is effective if the entire
surface of the roof can be wetted within five minutes
from the time the fire is detected by the sensor system. With the runs of the loop sensor spaced sufficiently close, little time will be consumed for the fire to over run and activate the sensor. Using a porous hose of the type described, the applicant has discovered that for a roof surface where the distance from ridge to eave is 16 feet, the water will travel from ridge to eave within two 45 minutes, and only about three to five minutes is required to achieve total saturation or wetting of the roof sur face. Where a building roof has substantially longer distances between the ridges and eaves, it would be desirable to install intermediate lengths of porous hose between the ridges and eaves. What has been described is a unique and effective system and method for preventing significant damage to a residence or other structure having wood shingles, from a fire originating at the roof surface particularly 55 from a flying ember. A very important aspect of the system is the response time between the start of a fire and the extinguishing of the fire. This response time has two components: (a) the time required to detect the fire once it has started and (b) the time required to extin 60 guish the fire once it has been detected. A particular feature of the invention is the type of sensor employed by means of which the response time for detecting the fire can be controlled and minimized. The use of the conductor loop sensors enables the plac 65 ing of the runs of the loops in the desired spaced relation and thereby fix the maximum detection time in relation to how fast a fire spreads on a wood shingle roof for
12 example. A feature of the invention is the use of the described conductor loops and particular forms of con ductors which enable a practical system, a system which may be installed at reasonable cost, and a system designed to withstand the various elements and forces acting on it in its exposed condition on the roof surface.
A particular feature and advantage of the invention is
the use of wire coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive which facilitates the installation of the conductor loop on the roof surface, even under adverse wind condi tions, and at the same time provides a lasting and secure installation for maximum reliability. The second aspect of the response time involves the wetting or saturation of the entire roof surface within a specified time limit. A feature and advantage of the invention is the utilization of a flexible porous hose for this purpose which has the principal advantages of dis pensing an adequate amount of water onto the roof surface with the water pressures normally available at residences and also to dispense the water uniformly since the flow rate from the hose is uniform throughout its length. Also, a flow rate from the porous hose can be provided which is adequate to saturate fully a large roof surface when the hose is placed along the ridges and hips. A feature and advantage of the system is that it is completely automatic, and will respond to a small fire ignited at the roof surface and extinguish that fire before it can spread to do any significant damage. Another particular feature of the invention is that it can be acti vated manually when desired and operated for a se lected time to wet the roof surface. This is particularly advantageous in the event of a fire in a neighboring residence or building, and would serve to effectively prevent the start of a fire at the residence having the system. Another advantage of manual operation of the system is to enable use of the system to wet the roof and possi bly the walls of the building to reduce the air condition ing load during the heat of the day. An ancillary advan tage of this is that where the water runs off the roof to the ground around the structure, the ground adjacent to the foundation may be wetted at selected intervals to prevent excessive drying of the soil and resulting set tling of the building foundation or floor slab. A further advantage of the system is that it is quite simple in structure and can be installed in a building for a very reasonable cost. An advantage of the preferred form of system utilizing sprinkler heads is that a mini mum of unsightly structure appears on the roof surface; and this is particularly desirable in the case of a resi dence structure. An ancillary advantage is that the water feed system is within the attic, not exposed to the elements and not subject to deterioration for that rea SO Another feature and advantage of the system is the use of the flame sensor circuits as an effective means for detecting a small roof surface fire before the fire can spread significantly, and the use of smoke sensors in the attic as a supplemental and backup system to detect the smoke created when the fire burns to the underside of
the roof surface. It has been observed that fire spreads much more rapidly on the underside of a wood shingle roof surface than on the exposed top side. With the use of the smoke detector backup system, the wire runs of the flame sensor circuits may be spaced further apart, resulting in some economy of installation, and yet pro vide effective protection as described.
14 7. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 6, the improvement comprising said pressure sensitive adhesive coating having electri cally insulating properties. 5 8. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 5, the improvement comprising said single wire conductor comprising a 20 gauge wire strand having a tin-lead composition. 9. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 8, 10 the improvement comprising said 20 gauge wire strand having a 60-40 tin lead com position. 10. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, the improvement comprising 15 said dispensing means comprising lengths of a porous face. conduit disposed on said exterior roof surface parallel What is claimed is: to and adjacent to the ridges of said roof surface. 1. In a fire protection system for a building roof, said . 11. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 10, system including: water dispensing means mounted on the improvement comprising said building and disposed for wetting the exterior roof 20 said porous conduit comprising a hollow walled con duit fabricated from a composition of granulated surface; supply means for feeding water from a water elastomer particles and a polyethylene binder mix, supply source to said dispensing means; and motorized and having a plurality of labyrinthine through-the valve means connecting said supply means to said Sup wall seepage passageways, ply source; the improvement comprising: a sensor circuit comprising a loop of an electric current 25 12. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, conductor disposed on said exterior roof surface and the improvement comprising: a signal device connected in an electrically energized said supply means including pipe runs suspended under the roof surface and including generally vertical ris circuit; said signal device being triggered in response ers extending through the roof surface; to a selected open or closed condition of said sensor circuit; and said signal device being connected to said 30 said dispensing means comprising sprinkler heads mounted on the upper ends of said risers. motorized valve means to effect the opening of said 13. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1 valve in response to the triggering of said signal de the improvement comprising: Vice 2. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, said signal device including a function switch and an 35 operator coil; the improvement comprising the conductor of said loop being disposed on said roof a control circuit including a supply circuit, a power circuit, an auto circuit, and a selector switch; said surface to form adjacent runs spaced apart a selected supply circuit supplying energy to one side of said relatively close distance from each other, to enable motorized valve, and energizing said signal device rapid overrunning of a run by a fire spreading on said 40 coil; said power circuit connecting one side of said roof surface function switch to said motorized valve; 3. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 2, the improvement comprising said selector switch having an off position and an auto position; and said auto circuit connecting the other said roof surface being formed from successive courses side of said function switch to said supply circuit, of wood shingles; said conductor runs being disposed through said selector switch auto position, to arm contiguous to the exposed edges of said courses. said signal device whereby, when said function, 4. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, the improvement comprising switch closes, said motorized valve is energized to effect the dispensing of water. said loop comprising a cable consisting of a pair of 14. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 13, contiguous conductors insulated from each other with a meltable insulation material; the conductors of 50 the improvement comprising: said cable being connected at one end in series with said selector switch including a manual position; said selector switch in said manual position connecting said signal device in an open circuit; said signal de said power circuit to said supply circuit, to energize vice being triggered in response to the closing of said directly said motorized valve to effect the opening of sensor circuit by the electrical joining of said contigu ous conductors, resulting from the melting of said 55 said valve. insulation material. 15. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, 5. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, the improvement comprising: the improvement comprising a second sensor circuit disposed beneath said roof sur face comprising a heat sensitive device and a second said loop comprising a continuous, meltable, single wire signal device; said heat sensitive device being respon conductor connected in series with said signal device sive to a selected heat level, and said signal device in a closed circuit; said signal device being triggered being triggered in response to detection of said se in response to the opening of said sensor circuit re lected heat level; and said second signal device being sulting from the severing of said single wire conduc connected to said motorized valve, to effect the open tor of said loop. 6. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 5, 65 ing of said valve in response to the triggering of said the improvement comprising second signal device. 16. In a fire protection system as set forth in claim 1, said single wire conductor being coated with a pressure
13 While the preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be under stood by those skilled in the art that changes and modifi cations may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. While, in the preferred embodiments, the wiring of the flame sensors are on the upper exposed surface of the roof, which would be the most economical installa tion, it may be desirable in some instances to secure the wire of these sensors of the under surface of the roof. Similarly, while in the preferred embodiment the pipes feeding the water dispensers are supported in the attic area under the roof surface, it may be desirable with certain roof structures such as cathedral ceilings to mount these water feed pipes on the exposed roof sur
the improvement comprising:
a second sensor circuit disposed beneath said roof sur face comprising a smoke sensitive device and a sec ond signal device; said smoke sensitive device being responsive to a selected smoke level, and said signal
device being triggered in response to detection of said
16 providing said loop as cable of a contiguous pair of conductors insulated from each other with a meltable
insulation material, with said insulation material being meltable in the heat of fire;
selected smoke level;
and said second signal device being connected to said motorized valve, to effect the opening of said valve in response to the triggering of said second signal de vice.
melting of the insulation material. 21. A method as set forth in claim 17, including the
17. A method for protecting a building roof against fire including the steps
providing water dispensing means for wetting the exte rior roof surface;
controlling the supplying of water to said water dis pensing means by an electrically operated device; providing a sensor comprising a loop of an electric
current conductor and said electrically operated de vice connected in an electrically energized circuit;
mounting said conductor of said loop on said roof sur face in adjacent runs spaced to be overrun quickly by a fire spreading on said roof surface; and operating said electrically operated device in re
sponse to a change from an open or a closed condi tion of said electrically energized circuit, effected when said loop is exposed to the heat of fire, to con trol said supplying of water. 18. A method as set forth in claim 17, including the step
from each other.
19. A method as set forth in claim 17, wherein the
including the step disposing said runs contiguous to the exposed edges of said shingle courses. 20. A method as set forth in claim 17, including the
providing said loop as a continuous single wire conduc tor meltable in the heat of fire; and connecting said single wire conductor in series with said electrically operated device in a closed circuit, whereby said electrically operated device is operated in response to the opening of said electrically ener gized circuit when said single wire conductor is rup tured by melting. 22. A method as set forth in claim 21, including the step providing said continuous single wire as a single 20 gauge strand fabricated from a 60-40 tin-lead compo sition. 23. A method as set forth in claim 17, including the steps adhering said loop on said roof surface by means of a pressure sensitive adhesive applied to said loop. 24. A method as set forth in claim 17, including the
spacing said adjacent runs about eight to twelve inches building has a wood shingle roof arranged in courses,
and connecting said conductor pair, at one end of said cable, in series with said electrically operated device in an open circuit, whereby said electrically operated device is operated in response to the closing of said electrically energized circuit when said conductor pair becomes electrically joined resulting from the
providing, as said water dispensing means, a porous hollow walled conduit fabricated from a composition of granulated elastomer particles and a polyethylene binder mix, and having a plurality of labyrinthine through-the-wall seepage passageways; and mount ing said conduit on the roof surface adjacent to the ridges thereof. k s: 2: