closest match of the sequence of fundamental component. (52) U.S. Cl. attributes ... See application file for complete search history. 14. ACCELEROMETER ..... Between-Class Attribute Transfer. ... IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in. Biomed
Sep 30, 2014 - and other optical spectroscopy tools on a silicon wafer. SUMMARY OF THE .... of the invention. FIG. 4 depicts an exemplary magnetic ?eld pro?le for a ... comprise a plasmonic nanocavity resonator 101, i.e. a sub micron sized ...
Oct 20, 1997 - Ho, ChainâMin Richard, âValidation Tools For Complex ... 33rd Design Automation Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Pro ceedings .... 97â101.*.
Jul 30, 2013 - Jones et al., Releasable Luciferin-Transporter Conjugates: Tools for the Real-Time Analysis .... pro-drug: release behavior of biphenylylacetic acid from its ... polymer conjugate IT-101 in multiple human lymphoma xeno grafts,â.
Mar 28, 2012 - 156/172. 3,715,231 A * 2/1973 Ngetal. 206/5243. 3,854,905 A * 12/1974 BalZer et a1. 96/220 .... the ability to retain enough fuel for a ?nal de-orbit maneuver at end of life. .... ginally acceptable quali?cation and certi?cation proced
Nov 11, 1999 - diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases associated with C. pneumoniae. ... has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary .... variety of forms including, for example, Fv, Fa, and F(ab')2, as well as
Mar 15, 1996 - plasmid carrying a gene of interest under regulatory control ..... visual observation. .... DNA construct: glufosinate (Phosphinothricin, L-PPT).
Nov 18, 2010 - co s4 1 3 day3 .ppt ... Microsoft MSDN Library Visual Studio 2005 (2005, March) ... FSCTL_GET_NTFS_VOLUME_DATA Control Code.
Sep 12, 2003 - Gervais, A., 'Security Analysis of Industrial Control Systems', Aalto .... odva.org/ 10i2/03ievents /NewEtherNet/EtherNet-IPOverview.ppt retrieved on Nov. 11, 2004. ...... maps/displays via a visual or other type application. At 420 ..
Aug 20, 2010 - scroll of a PowerPoint presentation, and a rapid scroll or pan of photographic images. .... ning within the GUI. Typical document control gestures .... degraded visual performance may continue until the object' s or item's speed ...
(12) United States Patent Howard (54)
(10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent:
METHOD OF RAISING THE FLASH POINTS AND IMPROVING THE FREEZE RESISTANCE OF VOLATILE GREEN SOLVENTS
(73) Assignee: Greensolve LLC, Binghamton, NY (US) (*)
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 19 days. This patent is subject to a terminal dis claimer.
7,166,664 B1 7,176,174 B2
1/2007 Anderson 2/2007 Flippini et al.
7,273,839 B2 * 7,833,959 B1 *
Jul. 29, 2010
(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 12/361,802, ?led on Jan. 29, 2009.
Howard ...................... .. 252/364 KoetZle ....................... .. 427/386
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS WO
[retrieved on Feb. 21, 2010]; Retrieved from the Internet: ,
Related US. Application Data
“Clean Cities of Middle Tennessee”; Article (online) Apr. 5, 2008,
Prior Publication Data US 2010/0187478 A1
KoetZle ....................... .. 510/407
12/2007 Flippini et al.
Dec. 7, 2009
Stephanos ..................... .. 44/266 Hendrickson et a1. ...... .. 430/306
(21) Appl.No.: 12/632,069 (22) Filed:
*Jan. 15, 2013
6,843,812 B2 * 6,897,008 B1 *
(75) Inventor: HarryW Howard, Little Egg Harbor, NJ (US)
US 8,354,042 B2
(2006.01) (2006.01) (2006.01)
http://Web.archive.org/Web/20080405060339/http://WWW.tennes seecleanfuels.org/Methanol.htrnl> para -; 2 pages. Cargill Dow and Ashland Sign Ethyl Lactate Agreement: Green Solvents from Renewable Resources; Article [online]; Business Wire, Apr. 23, 2002, [retrieved on Feb. 22, 2010]; Retrieved from the Internet: URL; http//WWW.allbusiness.corn/electronics/electronics overvieW/5935032-1.html> para ; ti; 3 pages. International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US10/ 21350; dated Mar. 3, 2010; 8 pages. International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2010/ 060017, dated Aug. 25, 2011, 7 pages.
A method of raising the ?ash point of a green solvent includes adding from about 0.05 to 5.0 Wt. % of at least one terpene alcohol, based on the Weight of the at least one terpene alcohol and the green solvent. Green solvents are derived from
organic matter, such as plants. They are not the product of petroleum feed stocks. Preferably, tWo terpene alcohols are added to the green solvent. Further, the addition of at least one
terpene alcohol improves both the freeze resistance and the shelf life of the ?nal green solvent solution.
16 Claims, No Drawings
US 8,354,042 B2 1
METHOD OF RAISING THE FLASH POINTS AND IMPROVING THE FREEZE RESISTANCE OF VOLATILE GREEN SOLVENTS
Some examples of green solvents include, but are not lim
ited to, alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and turpentine. The problem with these alcohols, however, is that due to their high VOC, they are considered HAPS which violate Federal and State emissions regulations.
Green solvents include, for example, ethyl lactate, with a
REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
?ash point of 1 150 E, which although not considered a Class IVOC, still places limitations on their potential uses. Green
This application is a Continuation-In-Part of application Ser. No. 12/361,802, ?led Jan. 29, 2009, entitled “Method of Raising the Flash Point of Volatile Organic Compounds”. As
esters, such as N-butyl propionate, ethyl lactate, methyl soyate, and terpene alcohols, are considered combustible, having ?ash points ranging from 1150 F. up to 250° F. How ever, they are slow to evaporate and exhibit good solvating characteristics when used in blended compounds. Nonethe less, they are considered environmentally clean and would be
to the common subject matter, the bene?t under 35 USC
§119(e) of the above identi?ed United States Utility Appli cation is hereby claimed, and the aforementioned application is hereby incorporated herein by reference.
utilized more extensively if their volatilities can be reduced.
Many terpene alcohols have the chemical formula: CIOHISO. Terpenoid is the name given to the more general class of compounds which are characterized by a repeating carbon skeleton of isoprene. Terpenoids are derived from
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention pertains to the ?eld of organic solvents. More particularly, the invention pertains to adding a combi nation of terpene alcohols to generally environmentally safe (“green”) solvents, which unfortunately also exhibit unac
classi?cation as “green compounds”. They come in the form of liquids, solids, waxes, oils, and alcohols. Terpenoids are divided into groups determined by the number of carbon atoms and repeating isoprene units. They may be formed as
ceptable volatility characteristics, to increase the ?ash points of these compounds for an expanded scope of uses. 25
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
acyclic, monocyclic, or polycyclic structures. Terpene alcohols in various forms have been used for cen turies in fragrances due to their compatibility with other com
pounds and their minimal negative environmental impact. The ?avor and fragrance industries divide terpineols, which
“Green” solvents, such as certain alcohols, acetates, esters, etc. are regarded as such because of their sources of origin
(non-petroleum based) and the fact that they biodegrade
plants, trees, ?owers, and other vegetation which allows their
are a type of terpene alcohol, into alpha-, beta- or gamma
terpineols, with Beta-Terpineol being non-naturally occur ring. Terpene alcohols have been used for other purposes,
readily after use without environmental damage. All solvents are classi?ed as Volatile Organic Compounds due to their
photo-reactive qualities and Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAPS)
such as disinfectants, cleaning compounds, soaps, cosmetics
status. They are further sub-classi?ed based upon their vapor
and colognes. They are also known to add, enhance or mask
pressures, boiling points and ?ash points. The ?ash point is signi?cant because it is the point at which the liquid becomes
US. Pat. No. 7,273,839 B2 discloses the use of an alpha
a volatile vapor, mixes with oxygen and thereby acquires its
terpineol with petroleum based organic solvents and blends of
most combustible or ?ammable state. In the United States, the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) have classi?ed such compounds
solvents to increase the ?ash points of these solvents. The patent discloses that the addition of at least 10%, by weight, of an alpha terpineol to a single solvent or combination of sol
based on their volatilities or “?ash points”.
The EPA and DOT Volatile Organic Compound (“VOC”) classi?cations are as follows: 45
Class I liquids (?ammable) ?ash point at or below 100° F. Class II liquids (combustible) ?ash point from 100° F. to below 140° F. Class III liquids (combustible) ?ash point above 140° F. to below 200° F. 50
Obviously, the more ?ammable a solvent, the more restric tions exist on its use. The Federal Government has classi?ed such solvents as Hazardous Materials or “HAZMATS”. Fur ther, manufacturers that utilize solvents must handle the more
volatile liquids more carefully and have to address issues
the odor of products which perhaps might be offensive to humans or animals.
involving atmospheric volatility, shelf life and worker health concerns from prolonged exposure to these chemicals.
vents increases the ?ash point of the blended compound. They show examples and claim that at least 5% of one alpha terpi neol increases the ?ash points of speci?c solvents to useful levels. In one example, they claim that by adding 18 wt % of alpha terpineol to acetone, they increased the solvent’s ?ash point from 0° F. to 143.6° F. However, excessive alpha terpi neol loadings (10-18%) cause rapid settling and poor shelf life which substantially adds to the cost of a solvent or com bination of solvents. This is therefore a rather costly means to
raise ?ash points. The excessive loading (i.e., in excess of 10-15% by weight) of a single alpha terpineol results in paint and adhesive for mulating problems due to incompatibility with some key resins that shows up during ?lm formation and drying. The formulation often separates, leaving the terpineol behind. The terpineol acts as a diluent, phase separates, perhaps forming
“Green” solvents are usually more costly than petroleum
under the ?lm, within the ?lm, and upon the surface. The
based solvents and may be less effective as solvents than
result for fast drying lacquers, vinyls, and similar coatings was complete rejection of the coating by the substrate. After 2-3 days of drying time, the stressed ?lms lifted and ?oated,
those based on petroleum hydrocarbon stock. However, if
these solvents can be modi?ed so that their ?ash points can be raised, this would result in signi?cantly more uses for these
exhibiting no ultimate adhesion or bond strength. Vinyls
heavily loaded with terpineol perform the worst, because they
compounds as well as increasing their shelf lives. It is desir able therefore to raise the ?ash points of a variety of green
solvents without substantially increasing the cost of these solvents. This would expand the range of potential uses for and improve the overall solubility of the green solvents.
are in a ketone solvent solution and exhibit a low molecular 65
weight during application. As soon as the ketone based sol vents evaporate, the ?lm becomes stressed due to the higher
molecular weight of the vinyl resin and the ?lm simply
US 8,354,042 B2 4
3 delaminates from the surface. In this instance, a heavy load
l. Paints, Coatings and Finishes.
ing of the terpineol acts like a parting agent (or Wax) thus preventing permanent adhesion of the vinyl ?lm to the sub
homogenous solution for packaging and/or application.
a. GSB can dissolve or disperse resins and pigments into a
b. GSB offers a greater choice of solvent blends Which
determines paint appearance and dry time. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
c. GSB readily solubiliZes in and evaporates from the
applied paint, reducing dry time and service restoration. The method of raising the ?ash points of volatile green
d. GSB permits high-solids coatings for thick bather pro
solvents uses a minimal amount of terpene alcohols to alloW
tection. e. GSB facilitates packaging in bulk, container, and/or aerosols.
the blended compound to have a higher ?ash point. This is achieved by using a loW concentration of at least one terpene alcohol. This permits more uses for these green solvents than Would otherWise have been expected based on each solvent’ s
f. GSB permits safe application of formerly explosive, ?ammable and exempt-VOC solvents.
virgin ?ash point. By adding only from about 0.05 to 5.0 Wt.
2. Printing Inks, Printing press maintenance.
% of at least one terpene alcohol, the ?ash points of the green solvents is increased, in some cases signi?cantly, resulting in
a. GSB more readily adjusts the printing ink viscosity and
an increased range of uses for these compounds. This also
contributes to longer shelf life With negligible settling as Well as improving its freeZe point resistance. Preferably, tWo ter pene alcohols are employed in the solvent blend.
b. GSB permits cleaning of machined or polished press 20
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
parts to remove inks Without abrasive damage. c. GSB facilitates emissions compliance and safer use. 3. Adhesives a. GSB is used to prepare surfaces and render them clean
prior to adhesive application. b. GSB may be incorporated into the adhesive formula to
The addition of about 0.05 to 5.0 Wt %, based on the total
Weight of the blended compound, of at least one terpene alcohol to non-petroleum based green solvents raises the ?ash points of these solvents. “Green” solvents, such as certain
c. GSB is often used to soften or remove adhesives Without
damaging substrate surfaces. 4. Pharmaceuticals.
alcohols, acetates, esters, etc. are classi?ed as such because of
their non-petroleum origin and the fact that they biodegrade readily after use Without having a deleterious effect on the
a. GSB may be used during processing, synthesis and 30
environment. They are naturally occurring in the environ ment. The combination of being “green” and either VOC exempt (under EPA and DOT “Volatile Organic Compound” classi?cations) or at least having a higher volatility offers formulators and manufacturers a unique class of solvents With
adjust viscosity and “tack time”.
extraction of non-desired chemicals or ingredients. b. GSB may be used in the inks for logos or trade name identi?cation of tablets or capsules. c. GSB may be used for printing and labeling of containers
and cartons and in the packaging of products. 35
Which to formulate solvating compounds that are readily
5. Agriculture. a. GSB may be used for blending pesticides such as insec
compliant With existing environmental regulations.
ticides like chloropyrifos into vehicles for application.
Additional improvements in the usefulness of green sol vents can be made by adding up to 5%, by Weight, based on the total Weight of the ?nal solvent formulation, of at least one
b. GSB facilitates adjustment for spray ef?ciency and even 40
terpene alcohol. Preferably, from 2 to 4%, by Weight, based
a. GSB may be used to process oils for foods.
on the total Weight of the ?nal solvent formulation, of at least
one alpha terpineol further increases the ?ash point of green solvents. It has been discovered that loWer amounts of alpha
terpineols added actually improves the performance of the resulting solvent compound as opposed to adding signi?
cantly higher amounts of alpha terpineols . An added bene?t is that since terpene alcohols can be expensive, the less used the better as the less expensive is the ?nal solvent formulation.
Examples of terpene alcohols include geraniol, citronellol, nerol, menthol, nerolidol, and famesol. These compounds
polish remover. c. GSB may be used in specialty formulae for antiseptics.
8. Transportation industry. a. Aircraft, Watercraft, and Automotive cleaners and
Fragrances, Inc. and Millennium Chemicals, Inc. It has also been discovered that by adding small amounts of 55
improved the solvent’s resistance to freeZing, as Well. The “loW loading” of a combination of terpene alcohols signi?cantly expands the uses to Which the green solvents can be employed. The small amount of at least one terpene alco
hol, and preferably tWo terpene alcohols, alloWs the formu
b. GSB may be used to add ?avor and fragrances to liquids and foods. c. GSB may be used for inks and adhesives in the packag ing of cartons and containers. 7. Personal care products. a. GSB may be used in hairspray and cosmetics.
b. GSB may be used for ?ngernail polish and ?ngernail
can be acquired from manufacturers such as Flavors and
at least one terpene alcohol to a green solvent signi?cantly
6. Food and Drink Industry.
b. Windshield deicers, cleaners. c. Brake cleaners, hydraulic brake ?uid. d. Carburetor and fuel injection cleaners. e. Touch-up spray paint for bodies, identi?cation purposes and identi?cation labels for tires.
9. Electronic, Electrical Industry. 60
a. GSB can be used as a cleaner of electrical parts, contacts,
lator to “?ne tune” the solvent formulation for use in a much
and hardWare used in the electrical industry.
Wider range of applications than before. For example, these
b. GSB may be used as a safety cleaner, ?ux remover, etc. on electrical printed circuit boards. c. GSB may be used for the preparation, cleaning and
combination compounds can noW successfully be used for
expanded applications in the folloWing industries. To be con cise, the abbreviation “GSB” is used to represent the potential “green solvent blends” that may be formulated according to the present disclosure.
assembly of computers and/ or hardWare and printers. d. GSB may be packaged in either bulk or convenient aerosols.
US 8,354,042 B2 6
5 e. GSB is an excellent oil and contact cleaner since it
evaporates leaving no residual contamination.
10. Aerospace Industry. a. GSB may be used for the preparation, cleaning and
assembly of precision aerospace parts and assemblies.
Freeze at 38 Deg. F.
Dimethyl Carbonate + 24% Wt.
Liquid at 2 Deg. F.
Acetone + 2% Wt. A-JAX
b. GSB may be used to clean machine oils, excessive lubri
By increasing the ?ash point and improving freeze resis
cants, human ?ngerprints, etc. from delicate parts.
tance of the ?nal solvent formulation, an expanded variety of
11. Optics, Optical lenses, assemblies.
uses, plus improved shipping conditions and storage capabili
a. GSB and GSB based compounds may be used as clean
ties are noW available to green solvents Which Would other
ers of lenses and precision optics. b. GSB provides convenience and eliminates human oils from ?nger contact via aerosol spray cleaners, thus leaving no residual. 12. Tanker bilge and/or hold cleaner. a. GSB may be used to provide safe, Water soluble, biode
Wise have remained exempt based on their virgin properties under VOC standards.
(II) Examples of Invention ShoWing Improved Solvent Flash Points and Expanded Uses
gradable cleaners for cleaning tanker holds. b. GSB may be blended With para?inic and/or microcrys
The Terpineol blend identi?ed beloW includes a 1:1 blend,
by Weight, of the terpene alcohols A-JAX and Mil-350.
talline Wax residuals from crude oil transports, tankers,
barges and storage vessels. With respect to bilge and hold cleaning the tanker holds
from varied Wax solids is a signi?cant problem. For example, US. Navy fuel tankers have a constant problem Which requires arduous cleaning and strict attention to the safe
Practical uses: High ?ash acetone may be used in specialty
coatings, such as Vinyls and Chlorinated Rubbers, Epoxies, Lacquers and Acrylics to adjust VOC emissions of these products to meet local and Federal regulations. May also be used in solvent based and Water based emulsions, pastes, and strippers. It leaves no ?lm upon fast evaporation and is excel
process may be achieved by either using GSB blends With Water pressure or eliminating Water entirely. Since the GSB’ s
are environmentally more friendly than conventional petro
lent for cleaning electronics and precision metal parts.
leum based solvents, run-off from the cleaning operation becomes less problematic by being easier and less costly to
(safe solvent). Practical uses: As super acetone having a high ?ash point, fast drying time With less susceptibility to blushing or Water
(I) Comparison Tests
For the purposes of the folloWing examples, “IFF” stands for the supplier, International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. and “Mil” stands for the supplier, Millennium Chemicals, Inc. “AJAX” is a terpene alcohol available from IFF, having
sensitivity. It has identical utility as straight acetone but is not Water soluble and may be used for Water clean-up. It may be used to adjust solvent based formulas to meet emission regulations. DMC is considered as a green solvent and is excellent for the
the chemical formula: C10-H18-O. Mil-350 is a terpene alco hol available from Mil. It is a terpene alcohol, Whose chemical
cleaning of specialty precision parts such as electronics, printing presses, mills and optics. 3.60% Wt. Acetone+36% Wt. P-Chlorobenzotri?uoride+4%
name is 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha, alpha, 4-trim
solvent). Practical uses: Excellent balanced solvent for addition to
coatings or ?nishes, such as paints and varnishes. P-Chlo
Flash Point Comparison Green solvent
robenzotri?uoride adds the characteristic of a medium to sloW evaporation rate and functions as a tail solvent to improve ?lm
?ash point 50
Ethyl lactate Ethyl lactate + 2%, by Wt.,
1150 F. 1450 F.
Ethyl lactate + 2%, by Wt. A-JAX + 2%, by Wt. 350
1600 F. 55
Flash Point Comparison Solvent
formation and gloss. It is an excellent cleaner, preparation solvent, degreaser and deWaxer. It is suitable for bulk or aerosol packaging as a cleaner, especially specialty parts cleaning and assembly. It may also be used to adjust existing formulations to meet emission regulations. 4.97% Wt. Ethyl Lactate+3% Wt. terpene alcohol blend. Flash point: >147 Deg. F., Blended status: Environmental
Green VOC (safe solvent).
Practical uses: It is an excellent green solvent useful as a Dimethyl Carbonate
63 Deg. F.
Dimethyl Carbonate + 2% Wt.
105 Deg. F.
350 + 2% Wt. A-JAX
Dimethyl Carbonate + 24% Wt.
170 Deg. F.
Acetone + 2% Wt. A-JAX
Freeze Point Comparison Solvent
96 hr. Freeze Duration
solvent cleaner, Water based cleaner and for inclusion into industrial coatings. It emits loW odor, is easy to use, and is compatible With many solvents and surfactant cleaners. It is
considered safe and green for those products needing excel lent performance as Well as requiring biodegradability. 5.26% Wt. Ethyl Lactate+70% Wt. Acetone+4% terpene alco hol blend. Flash point: >145 Deg. F., Blended status: LoW VOC (safe
US 8,354,042 B2 8
7 Practical uses: May be used in solvent blends for coatings and ?nishes and since the combination is Water miscible it has
selected from the group consisting of alcohols, acetates, and
unique capabilities of equal performance in solvents or Water
7. The method of claim 1 Wherein the green solvent is
8. The method of claim 1, Wherein the green solvent is
based product formulas. It is excellent as a surface cleaner,
concrete degreaser, general surface stripper and anti-gra?iti
stripper. It may be packaged in bulk or as an aerosol and is, of
selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, ben
Accordingly, it is to be understood that the embodiments of the invention herein described are merely illustrative of the
9. A method of improving the freeZe resistance of a green determining an amount of acetone and an amount of at least one terpene alcohol in a range of about 0.05 to about 5.0
application of the principles of the invention. Reference herein to details of the illustrated embodiments is not intended to limit the scope of the claims, Which themselves recite those features regarded as essential to the invention.
Wt. % based on the total Weight of the green solvent, the acetone, and the terpene alcohol such that the addition of the acetone and the terpene alcohol loWers the freeZing
point of the green solvent by at least 36° F.; and adding the terpene alcohol and the acetone to the green solvent to form a green composition;
What is claimed is: 1. A method of raising the ?ash point of a green solvent
Wherein the terpene alcohol originated from naturally occurring non-petroleum stock and is biodegradable;
determining an amount of at least one terpene alcohol in a range of about 0.05 to about 5.0 Wt. % based on the total
Weight of the green solvent and the terpene alcohol such that the addition of the terpene alcohol raises the ?ash point of the green solvent by at least 200 F.; and
least one terpene alcohol is in a range of about 2 to about 3 Wt. 25
citronellol, nerol, menthol, nerolidol, and farnesol. 12. The method of claim 9, Wherein the at least one terpene
ring non-petroleum stock and is biodegradable. 30
3. The method of claim 1, Wherein the at least one terpene 35
citronellol, nerol, menthol, nerolidol, and famesol. 4. The method of claim 1, Wherein the at least one terpene
selected from the group consisting of alcohols, acetates, and esters.
16. The method of claim 9, Wherein the green solvent is
selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, ben
present in an amount in a range of about 0.5 to about 1.5%, by
Weight, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the
is present in an amount in a range of about 0.5 to about 1.5%,
15. The method of claim 9 Wherein the green solvent is
by Weight, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the terpene alcohols. 6. The method of claim 5 Wherein each terpene alcohol is
by Weight, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the terpene alcohols. 14. The method of claim 13, Wherein each terpene alcohol by Weight, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the terpene alcohols.
alcohol comprises tWo terpene alcohols. 5. The method of claim 4, Wherein each terpene alcohol is present in an amount in a range of about 0.05 to about 2.0%,
alcohol comprises tWo terpene alcohols. 13. The method of claim 12, Wherein each terpene alcohol is present in an amount in a range of about 0.05 to about 2.0%,
one terpene alcohol.
alcohol is selected from the group consisting of geraniol,
%, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the at least one terpene alcohol. 11. The method of claim 9, Wherein the at least one terpene
alcohol is selected from the group consisting of geraniol,
and Wherein the green solvent originated from naturally occur 2. The method of claim 1, Wherein the amount of the at least one terpene alcohol is in a range of about 2 to about 3 Wt. %, based on the total Weight of the green solvent and the at least
ring non-petroleum stock and is biodegradable. 10. The method of claim 9, Wherein the amount of the at
adding the terpene alcohol to the green solvent to form a
green composition; Wherein the terpene alcohol originated from naturally occurring non-petroleum stock and is biodegradable;
Wherein the green solvent originated from naturally occur